LIBRARY PROCEDURES MANUAL
IV. Collection Development
This section includes:
A. Selection of Learning Resources (Board Policy)
B. Procedures for Dealing With Challenged Materials (Board Policy)
C. Selection Guidelines
D. Guidelines for Collection Weeding and Inventory
E. Guidelines for Processing Materials
F. Standards for Bibliographic Records
A. SELECTION OF LEARNING RESOURCES
1. STATEMENT OF POLICY
The policy of the Board of Trustees of Georgetown I. S. D. is to provide a wide range of learning resources at varying levels of difficulty, with diversity of appeal and the presentation of different points of view to meet the needs of students and teachers.
2. OBJECTIVES OF SELECTION
A. For the purposes of this statement of policy, the term "learning resources" will refer to any person(s) or any material (whether acquired or locally produced) with instructional content or function that is used for formal or informal teaching/learning purposes. Learning resources include textbooks, other books, supplementary reading and informational materials, charts, community resource people, agencies and organizations, dioramas, filmstrips, flash cards, games, globes, kits, machine readable data files, maps, microfilms, models, motion pictures, periodicals, pictures, realia, slides, sound recordings, transparencies and videorecords.
B. The primary objective of learning resources is to support, enrich and help to implement the educational program of the school through the interaction of professional personnel and other members of the school community. It is the duty of professional staff to provide students with a wide range of materials at varying levels of difficulty, with diversity of appeal and the presentation of different points of view.
C. To this end, the Board of Trustees of Georgetown I.S.D. affirms that it is the responsibility of its professional staff:
--To provide materials that will enrich and support the curriculum, taking into consideration the varied interests, abilities, learning styles and maturity levels of the students served;
--To provide materials that will stimulate growth in factual knowledge, literary appreciation, aesthetic values, and societal standards;
--To provide materials on various sides of controversial issues so that young citizens may have an opportunity to develop under guidance the practice of critical analysis and to make informed judgments in their daily lives;
--To provide materials representative of the many religious, ethnic, and cultural groups and their contributions to our national heritage and the world community;
--To place principle above personal opinions and reason above prejudice in the selection of materials of the highest quality in order to assure a comprehensive collection appropriate to the school community.
3. RESPONSIBILITY FOR SELECTION OF LEARNING RESOURCES
A. The Board of Trustees delegates the responsibility for the selection of learning resources to the professional staff employed by the school system, and declares that selections made shall be held to have been made by the Board of Trustees of Georgetown Independent School District.
B. While selection of learning resources involves many people (administrators, teachers, students, community persons, resource center personnel) the responsibility for coordinating the selection of school learning resources and making the recommendation for purchase rests with the administration and professional personnel.
4. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF LEARNING RESOURCES
A. The following criteria will be used as they apply:
1. Learning resources shall support and be consistent with the general educational goals of the state and the district and the aims and objectives of individual schools and specific courses.
2. Learning resources shall be chosen to enrich and support the curriculum and the personal needs of users.
3. Learning resources shall meet high standards of quality in:
-artistic quality and/or literary style
4. Learning resources shall be appropriate for the subject area and for the age, emotional development, ability level, learning styles and social development of the students for whom the materials are selected.
5. Learning resources shall be designed to provide a background of information which will motivate students and staff to examine their own attitudes and behavior, to comprehend their duties, responsibilities, rights and privileges as participating citizens in our society, and to make intelligent judgments in their dailv lives.
6. Learning resources shall provide information on opposing sides of controversial issues so that users may develop under guidance the practice of critical analysis.
B. The selection of learning resources on controversial issues will be directed towards maintaining a balanced collection representing various views.
Learning resources shall clarify historical and contemporary forces by presenting and analyzing intergroup tension and conflict objectively, placing emphasis on recognizing and understanding social and economic problems.
5. PROCEDURES FOR SELECTION OF LEARNING RESOURCES
A. In selecting learning resources, professional personnel will evaluate available resources and curriculum needs and will consult reputable, professionally prepared aids to selection and other appropriate sources. Among sources to be consulted are:
1. Bibliographies (latest edition available, including supplements): American Historical Fiction Basic Book Collection for Elementary Grades Basic Book Collection for Junior High Schools The Best in Children's Books Children and Books Children's Catalog Elementary School Library Collection European Historical Fiction and Biography Guide to Sources in Educational Media Junior High School Catalog Reference Books for School Libraries Subject Guide to Children's Books in Print Subject Index to Books for Intermediate Grades Subject Index to Books for Primary Grades Westinghouse Learning Directory
and as a part of the vertical file index, other special bibliographies, many of which have been prepared by educational organizations for particular subject matter areas.
2. Current reviewing media: AASA Science Books and Films Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books Booklist
Horn Book Kirkus Reviews Previews School Library Journal Wilson Library Bulletin
Other sources will be consulted as appropriate. Whenever possible, the actual resource will be examined.
B. Recommendations for purchase involve administrators, teachers, students, district personnel and community persons, as appropriate.
C. Gift materials shall be judged by the criteria outlined and shall be accepted or rejected by those criteria.
D. Selection is an ongoing process which should include the removal of materials no longer appropriate and the replacement of lost and worn materials still of educational value.
B. PROCEDURES FOR DEALING WITH CHALLENGED MATERIALS
1. STATEMENT OF POLICY
Any resident or employee of the school district may formally challenge learning resources used in the district's educational program on the basis of appropriateness. This procedure is for the purpose of considering the opinions of those persons in the schools and the community who are not directly involved in the selection process.
2. REQUEST FOR INFORMAL RECONSIDERATION
A. The school receiving a complaint regarding a learning resource shall try to resolve the issue informally.
1. The principal or other appropriate staff shall explain to the questioner the school's selection procedure, criteria, and qualifications of those persons selecting the resource.
2. The principal or other appropriate staff shall explain the particular place the questioned resource occupies in the education program, its intended educational usefulness, and additional information regarding its use, or refer the party to someone who can identify and explain the use of the resource.
3. If the questioner wishes to file a formal challenge, a copy of the district Selection of Learning Resources policy and a Request for Reconsideration of Learning Resources form shall be handed or mailed to the party concerned by the principal.
3. REQUEST FOR FORMAL RECONSIDERATION
A. PRELIMINARY PROCEDURES
1. Each school will keep on hand and make available Request for Reconsideration of Learning Resources forms. All formal objections to learning resources must be made on these forms.
2. The Request for Reconsideration of Learning Resources form shall be signed by the questioner and filed with the principal or someone so designated by the principal.
3. The district superintendent and the curriculum director shall be informed of the formal complaint received.
4. The request for reconsideration shall be referred to a reconsideration committee at the school level for reevaluation of the resource.
5. Requests for reconsideration of materials in district collections shall be referred to the school resource center consultative committee for reevaluation of the resource. This committee may involve additional personnel as appropriate.
B. THE RECONSIDERATION COMMITTEE
1. Upon receipt of a request for formal reconsideration of a learning resource, the principal shall:
a. Appoint a reconsideration committee including the following membership as appropriate:
--Two members of the professional staff chosen by the administration
--One member of the resource center professional staff chosen by the resource center professional staff;
b. Name a convenor of the reconsideration committee.
c. Arrange for a reconsideration committee meeting within 10 working days after the complaint is received.
2. The reconsideration committee may choose to consult district support staff and/or community persons with related professional knowledge.
3. The reconsideration committee shall review the challenged resource and judge whether it conforms to the principles of selection outlined in the district's Selection of Learning Resources policy.
1. The reconsideration committee shall:
a. Examine the challenged resource;
b. Determine professional acceptance by reading critical reviews of the resource;
c. Weigh values and faults and form opinions based on the material as a whole rather than on passages or sections taken out of context;
d. Discuss the challenged resource in the context of the educational program;
e. Discuss the challenged item with the individual questioner when appropriate;
f. Prepare a written report.
2. The written report shall be discussed with the individual questioner if requested.
3. The written report shall be retained by the school principal, with copies forwarded to the curriculum director and the district superintendent. A minority report may also be filed.
4. Written reports, once filed, are confidential and available for examination by trustees and appropriate officials only.
5. The decision of the reconsideration committee is binding for the individual school.
6. Notwithstanding any procedure outlined in this policy, the questioner shall have the right to appeal any decision of the reconsideration committee to the superintendent, and subsequently, to the Board of Trustees as the final review panel.
D. GUIDING PRINCIPLES
1. Any resident or employee of the school district may raise objection to learning resources used in a school's educational program despite the fact that the individuals selecting such resources were duly qualified to make the selection, followed the proper procedure and observed the criteria for selecting learning resources.
2. The principal should review the selection and objection rules with the teaching staff at least annually. The staff should be reminded that the right to object to learning resources is one granted by policies enacted by the Board of Trustees.
3. No parent has the right to determine reading, viewing or listening matter for students other than his/her own children.
4 Georgetown I. S. D. supports the LIBRARY BILL OF RIGHTS, adopted by the American Library Association. (A copy of the LIBRARY BILL OF RIGHTS is attached to this policy.) When learning resources are challenged, the principles of the freedom to read/listen/view must be defended as well.
5. Access to challenged material shall not be restricted during the reconsideration process.
6. The major criterion for the final decision is the appropriateness of the material for its intended educational use.
7. A decision to sustain a challenge shall not necessarily be interpreted as a judgment of irresponsibility on the part of the professionals involved in the original selection and/or use of the material.
C. SELECTION GUIDELINES
Materials selected for libraries should be reviewed in recognized
professional journals such School Library Journal, Booklist, and Horn Book.
Items are personally examined before purchase if at all possible.
In addition, purchases are made from the state award lists: Texas Bluebonnet List, Lone Star Reading List, and Tayshas Reading List.
GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING THE COUNT OF BOOKS AND AUDIOVISUAL SOFTWARE FOR LIBRARY MEDIA CENTERS
To determine if a school campus is in compliance with Texas Administrative
Code 63.11 Requirements for Library Media Programs, these guidelines may be
1. Books by definition, include printed volumes in the areas of reference, fiction, nonfiction, print volumes of periodicals, entire text of a volume in microform, text materials on CD-ROM, and online text database subscriptions.
2. Multiple copies of one title are counted individually. Example: Three copies of Charlotte's Web count as three books.
3. Encyclopedia sets and multiple volume reference sets are counted individually. Example: A twenty volume encyclopedia set counts as twenty books.
4. Textbooks and multiple copies of titles purchased for department collections and used as texts are not to be counted.
5. Annual bound, complete unbound, or microform volumes of periodicals count as one book each. Microform volumes may be counted either as books or audiovisual, but not both. Example: A bound volume year of Better Homes and Gardens would include issues numbered one through twelve and would count as one book.
6. CD-ROM discs may be counted as books or audiovisual, but not both. If a CD-ROM disc contain text materials equivalent to an identifiable number of volumes.
Example: A CD-ROM encyclopedia can be counted as the same number of volumes as the print
version of that encyclopedia.
7. If a campus has access to online databases that contain textual information beyond bibliographic citations, each database may be counted as one book. Databases that are strictly bibliographic citations cannot be counted. Databases that provide abstracts and/or full-text information may be counted.
Example: Books in Print, accessed as an online database, is limited to bibliographic citation information. It cannot be counted. Magazines ASAP , which contains full-text articles, can be counted.
8. No bibliographic index, whether in print, CD-ROM, or online format, can be counted toward meeting any requirements.
9. The book count requirement must be met at each local campus.
10. Paperback books, whether cataloged or uncatalogued, should be counted on the same basis as hardback books.
1. The following audiovisual items should be counted:
a. films, 8mm and 16mm
c. multimedia kits
d. transparency sets (count as one)
e. transparencies if not in an organized set (count each transparency)
f. slide sets (count as one)
9. individual slides if not in an organized set (count each one)
h. study print sets (count as one)
k. microforms (If microforms have been included in the book count, they should not be
counted again as an audiovisual item.)
I. instructional games
m. phonograph records
n. microcomputer software in an organized set (Count as one. Programs that are networked
are counted once. The number of workstations is not counted).
o. individual microcomputer program disk not in an organized set (Count each disk.
Programs that are networked are counted once.)
p. tapes, audio and video
q. models, specimen
r. compact disks, laser disks, CD-ROM discs, videodisks (If CD-ROM discs are counted as books, they may not be counted as audiovisual.)
2. If an audiovisual item includes several components that must be used together to teach a concept, it should be counted as one item. Example: A multimedia kit composed of a filmstrip and audio tape that must be used together will be counted as one item.
3. If an audiovisual item or microcomputer disk contains independent programs, each may be counted separately. If the programs are dependent, the item is counted once. Example: A videotape containing the separate programs, Animals of South America. Animals of North America. and Animals of Africa, may be counted as three items. A videotape containing dependent programs, Jane Eyre, part 1, and Jane Eyre, part 2, is counted as one item.
4. Audiovisual resources that accompany textbooks are counted the same as above. Example: A set of transparencies accompanies the fifth grade science textbook. The set is counted as one. If the campus has four sections of fifth grade and four complete sets of transparencies, the count is four items.
5. School districts with large, centrally located audiovisual collections or which participate in the media services of the Education Service Center may include these items in each campus count. However, in no case, can the central collection count for more than one of the required audiovisual items. In all cases, one audiovisual item per student must be physically housed on the campus and must be cataloged and circulated through the library media center. Example: If a district subscribes to the media services of an education service center and also has a large central collection, each campus must still have at least one audiovisual item per student on that campus.
6. Audiovisual materials that are not cataloged and circulated through the library media center may not be counted.
TEA/Curriculum Development Library Media/April 1992
Gifts of materials or equipment may be accepted by the librarian
with the understanding that they may or may not be added to the collection.
The decision to include gift items in the collection will be based on the following
1. Does the item meet the district criteria and standards of selection?
2. Is the physical condition satisfactory?
3. Does the school need the item?
The librarian has the right to decide the conditions of display, housing, and access to donated items. No estimate of value of donated items will be furnished, although the school may acknowledge the receipt of a list of titles prepared by the donor and accompanying the donation, with no value indicated. Gift collections, which the donor expects to be on permanent exhibit, should not be accepted without approval by appropriate school district supervisory and administrative staff, because few campuses can afford space for such a collection.
If the library receives a cash gift for the purchase of materials or equipment, selection may be made by a committee composed of the principal, librarian, and one or more members of the teaching staff. The selection should be based primarily on the school's needs.
Magazines may be accepted but with no restrictions on their use.
A bookplate giving the donor's name may be placed in gift books, on audiovisual software containers, or on equipment.
The acceptance of a gift item may in no way be interpreted as endorsement of the item by the school or school district or any employee of the district. Gifts of materials or equipment should be reported to the Business Office for inventory control.
D. GUIDELINES FOR COLLECTION WEEDING AND INVENTORY
Removing obsolete, worn, and inappropriate materials from the library media center is both desirable and necessary. A search of the collection for information must provide a rewarding experience for the student and teacher. When there is only one useful item among a shelf full of books, they will soon tire of the hunt. Weeding out obsolete, ugly, and inaccurate materials will give the library media center a reputation for reliability in the opinion of its users.
Weeding gives the library media center an attractive appearance. Students take better care of a library media center that appears well kept. On the other hand, nothing inspires less regard for property than unsightly, worn out materials. Does the library really need a larger room, more shelving or storage or are the shelves and cupboards stuffed with dead, useless materials? If the shelves are filled with dated, unattractive books and unnecessary multiple copies, it is difficult to present a good case for a budget increase.
Weeding is essential to collection maintenance. Keeping materials just to increase the collection count, or because weeding is a difficult, time-consuming job is self-defeating. Weeding is not an irresponsible disposal of school property; rather it is a needed service that will enhance the credibility and use of the school library media center.
Who does the weeding?
The person who does the best job of weeding is the one who has a thorough understanding of the existing collection, of the school's curriculum, of the various units taught in all classrooms, and of the reading interests and levels of students. The library media specialist is this person. In highly specialized areas where the library media specialist is uncertain about some materials, the classroom teachers should be consulted for their opinions.
When should the library media specialist weed?
Weeding every year maintains the quality of the library. A thorough weeding every two or three years is imperative. If the library media specialist waits until the collection is so deteriorated that large quantities of materials must be discarded, he or she may be hindered by administrative apprehensions. Also, the teachers may be so attached to the old, familiar materials that the library media specialist will have difficulty explaining and justifying the disappearance of outdated favorites.
Pressures at the beginning and closing of the school year make these difficult times, even though all materials are then on the shelves. An alternate time might be shortly before a teacher begins a unit and when materials are being pulled for use.
Some library media specialists prefer to examine the collection on an informal basis as time permits. Keeping a record of which area was weeded, and when, is necessary.
If the library collection is to be entered in a data base for an automated circulation system and/or card catalog, careful weeding is a necessity. Entering items that should be discarded is a misguided use of time.
How much should be weeded?
The American Library Association suggests that 5% of the collection
be weeded annually. An average life of a book in the collection is approximately
ten years. Many factors affect this estimate of lifespan - political changes,
technological advances, heavy use of the volume.
What should be weeded?
1. the out-of-date and incorrect. Areas that deserve careful
examination are in science, technology, medicine (five years old} and geography
(ten years old). With the information explosion in full force, a major concern
is that new information, constantly appearing in print and other media, speeds
the obsolescence of the nonfiction collection, and necessitates more frequent
weeding than may have been common in the past. Another important category for
weeding is materials with potentially harmful misinformation such as materials
Encyclopedias copyrighted over five years ago are in question. Dictionaries that are twelve or fifteen years old will not include the latest meaning or different meaning of words as our language is constantly changing. Atlases that are ten years old or older will not include the current names of countries. In addition, China has changed the Roman alphabet spelling of all Chinese names and places. Check the atlases carefully to see if misinformation is being spread. Last year's almanacs may go into circulation for the current year but older yearbooks and almanacs that have been superceded should be removed from the inventory count. However, these may be retained in a storage area for use as a teaching tool in library skills instruction.
2. the biased, condescending, patronizing, or stereotyped. These materials can foster negative ethnic and cultural attitudes.
3. the worn out or badly damaged. Look for brittle, yellow, dirty pages, fine print, ragged bindings, poor quality pictures, loose or missing sections. Watch for damaged or incomplete audiovisual materials - scratched, warped records; mangled tape; missing parts; scratched or torn filmstrips; bent, torn or otherwise damaged study prints or posters.
4. the unpopular, unused, or unneeded. These titles are perhaps the most difficult to discard because, in some cases, it is an admission of a poor selection decision on the part of the library media specialist. In other cases, it simply means that reading tastes and interests have changed. Nevertheless, it is detrimental to keep a collection clogged with deadwood. Check the collection for more duplicate copies of titles than needed and materials that no longer fit the curriculum or the reading and/or interest level of the students.
If an item has not circulated in over five years, perhaps it should be considered for removal. However, this is not a rule. Many useful items are not frequently circulated.
5. the mediocre or poor in quality. These include poorly written adult books, with stereotyped characters and plots, popular when few children's books were available; series books of mediocre quality which were popular one or more generations ago; series still read by children today, mediocre in quality and serving no purpose in a school library media center.
6. textbooks. Sets of textbooks or supplementary texts do not belong on shelves in the library.
What Items should not be discarded?
1. Classics except when a more attractive edition is available
or there are too many copies on the shelf.
2. local and Texas history unless it can be replaced with new copies.
3. School annuals and other publications of this campus.
4. Materials that are not subject to rapid change - fairy and folk tales, fiction, biography, fine arts and sports (with the exception of rule books), poetry and literature, languages, religion.
What can be done with the discarded materials?
Before materials are physically removed from the library media center, marks of ownership should be obliterated, or the materials should be marked "withdrawn. It is suggested that materials which are definitely worn or inappropriate should be banished to the dumpster immediately. The items that are shabby but still useful may be retained in the classroom if teachers want them.
THE FOLLOWING GUIDELINES ARE OFFERED:
Encyclopedias should be considered for updating after five years and usually no later than ten years.
Much of the information will be outdated. Bibliographical sources will need to be considered within
this same time frame. Yearbooks and almanacs should be updated as superseded.
Computer materials will change rapidly with the technology. Replacement may be required more often. Bibliographies are seldom of use after ten years from date of copyright.
Self-help psychology and guidance materials may need to be reviewed for dated pictures and concepts. Most unscholarly works are useless after 10 years.
Philosophical and religious materials should be reviewed individually and as a collection to ensure that as many point of view as possible are presented.
Certain subject areas will need constant revision while others should be very carefully and seldom weeded. Basic sources on customs and volumes on folklore will probably be removed only because of poor physical condition. Depending on the curriculum, historical coverage of economics, communication, transportation, politics, and education will be maintained. Career materials should be discarded after five years. Be particularly aware of qualifications discrepancies in materials dealing with career preparation. Review of audiovisual sources for dated dress and mannerisms is especially important.
Depending on the size and use of the collection, old grammar materials and foreign language sources should be examined for dated examples and illustrations. Dictionaries differ in words included, especially slang words that have come into common usage.
Unless general science works have become classics, obsolete materials should be discarded. Each scientific area differs in the rate of change. Astronomy materials may become dated before botany sources. New discoveries in energy may require updating works in this field more often than materials in subjects such as natural history. Many materials related to the environment are still appropriate after fifteen years while an item about atoms could be inaccurate after two years.
Many of the concerns identified for the 500s apply to the 600s as well. Certain materials on medicine, radio, television, industry, space exploration, and automobiles will become dated rapidly. Other areas such as pets, crafts, and cookbooks may be used often and need to be replaced because of their condition.
This section often includes collections of handsomely illustrated sources on art, music, and other fine arts. These materials may be irreplaceable. Sources that are heavily used should be considered for replacement or, as is often the case, rebinding. Materials on certain hobbies may need updating. Use patterns should play a role in determining what needs updating. Sources on various sports should be current with duplicate copies available.
Literary history should seldom be discarded unless drastic curriculum changes are made. Collections versus individual works of major and minor poets, novelists, and playwrights may be weighed against curriculum needs and use patterns. Keep works by local people.
Many geography and travel materials tend to become dated quickly. Except for items that have become classics, geography and travel materials that are over ten years old should be considered for removal and/or replacement. Historical materials should be examined for use patterns as well as bias. The collection should contain a range of materials on all historical periods and examined for coverage. Those materials once purchased for coverage may be replaced with items of better quality.
Unless subject has a permanent interest or importance, discard when the demand wanes. Keep those that are outstanding in content or style as long as they are useful.
Fiction and Easy:
Use patterns greatly influence the review of fiction collections. Materials popular one year will sit on the shelves at other times. Duplicates once needed may no longer be appropriate. Replacement of popular worn items must be considered. Rebinding of out-of-print items may be an option for materials that fill a specific curriculum need or reading interest.
Do not keep longer than a year unless indexed. If indexed, keep no longer than the oldest index or 5-8 years depending on use.
from the Maryland State Department of Education, Michigan State Library,
and Texas Education Agency
Buckingham, Betty Jo. Weeding the Library Media Center Collections. Des Moines, Iowa: State of
Iowa, Department of Public Instruction, n.d.
Calgary Board of Education, Weeding the School Library Media Collection: A Systematic Approach
to Strengthening the Library Media Collection,. School Library Media Quarterly, Fall 1984,
Gordon, Anita, Weeding: Keeping Up with the Information Explosion,. School Library Journal.
September 1983, pp. 45-56.
Krabbe, Natalie, Good Reasons for Weeding,. Book Report, May/June 1987, pp. 2g-30.
Krabbe, Natalie, "It's Weeding Time Again,. School Library Journal, May 1987, p. 44.
Slote, Stanley J. Weeding Library Collections: Library Weeding Methods. 3rd ed. Englewood,
CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1989. $27.50
"Weeding Updated, School Librarian's Workshop, January 1986, pp. 1-3.
CONDITIONS FOR INVENTORY AND WEEDING
Before beginning inventory, try to have as many books as possible already shelved. (This is another good reason for doing inventory and weeding at the end of the year--most of the books have been turned in.)
The primary purpose of inventory is to compare your data base with your collection. In the case of a computerized library, the books are inventoried by using the barcode scanner. Some of the reasons for withdrawing a book are :
Worn, tom, or dirty condition
Sexist or biased
Out of date (particularly in nonfiction, although some fiction illustrations are so
dated they do not appeal to students)
Poor circulation record (For example, books that have not been checked out in
four or five years should probably be pulled. With a computerized system, print
a usage report.
FICTION: Watch for fads that have passed--such as the many
fiction books that come out after the issuing of popular movies--books about Star Wars or The Karate Kid would be an example. Books that no longer have any
appeal to your students can be discarded. Obviously sexist or biased books should be weeded. Books that are no longer checked out, probably due to old-fashioned illustrations can be pulled.
PICTURE BOOKS: As in the fiction section, care must be taken to remove obviously biased or sexist books. Books that are clearly miscataloged and should be in either the fiction or nonfiction section should be weeded at this time and recatalogued and correctly shelved. Books in this section are the ones that are most likely to be damaged, so try to look inside the book for torn, dirty, or child-colored pages.
REFERENCE AND GENERAL WORKS: Out-of-date encyclopedia sets should be pulled (these may be given to classrooms). Overused and out-of-date almanacs should be pulled (although you may wish to keep usable volumes so that you have enough for large group instruction). Out-of-date indices, such as Children's Guides to Magazines, National Geographic Index, Cobblestone Index, and so on should be discarded and replaced with more current indices.
PHILOSOPHY: Keep what is relevant to your school population. Remove books on ethics in which the text is either too difficult or the illustrations are unappealing. Carefully examine your books about the occult to be sure they are appropriate for the age group of your school.
RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Look over your books on religion to be sure you have a sampling of the many world religions. In order to make room for new books on religions, you may need to withdraw older books from a subject already well covered.
There are many beautiful new books on mythology, so check carefully for old ones, especially collections. If they are not being used much, remove them to make
room for newer, more appealing ones.
SOCIAL SCIENCE: Books on government need to be checked for accuracy and readability. Books dealing with careers and occupations need to be updated every five or six years or as need arises. The holiday section needs frequent careful checking to weed out unattractive and unused books. Although folk tales and fairy tales never go out of style, the many lavishly illustrated new volumes available may justify pulling the older, less attractive, and less used books.
LANGUAGES: Weed unused volumes to make room for more interesting books.
Most dictionaries can be retained, but discard old classroom volumes.
PURE SCIENCE: This section needs frequent careful revision because of the constant advances in science. Be especially careful in the sections on the universe, weather, and scientific experiments. Check carefully for accuracy of information and for copyright dates. The section on prehistoric animals also needs to be checked for accuracy as well as for signs of excessive wear and tear. Books on wild animals, plants, and rocks may not go out of date as rapidly, but they need to be checked for usage, beauty, and clarity of text.
TECHNOLOGY: Rapid advances in technology require that books in this
section be checked for copyright date. Five to seven years will change the information in fields such as medicine, television, planes, cars, trucks, motorcycles, space
technology, robotics, and even cooking. Remove out-of -date books in these fields.
ARTS AND RECREATION: Beautifully illustrated art and music history books need no discarding, so check only for damaged or worn condition. Drawing and crafts books need more careful inspection because of their popularity. Discard worn or unattractive books to make room for new additions. When you inventory the music section, check with the music teacher on questionable volumes. Hobby books on such things as stamp or coin collections need to be replaced often because of changing monetary values. Books on movies and television quickly become outdated. Remove the outdated to make room for new volumes.
Sports books that are how-to-play" types will not become outdated as quickly as books on professional teams. Pay special attention to sports books in regard to difficulty of text. Keep this section well weeded to accommodate new additions.
LITERATURE: The poetry and drama sections do not need much weeding, so check primarily for unused books. The jokes and riddles section needs frequent checking for damage and wear and tear.
HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, AND BIOGRAPHY: Historical books need not be discarded unless they are inaccurate or in poor condition. Geography and travel books need to be discarded and replaced more frequently due to changes constantly taking place in today's world. Biographies of sports and entertainment personalities can be discarded when their popularity wanes. Keep collected biographies suitable for your age group. Biographies of historical characters should be retained, especially if they are being used.
E. GUIDELINES FOR PROCESSING MATERIALS
Organizing and Maintaining Materials and Equipment
A major organizational objective should be ready access to library materials. For the book and audiovisual materials collections, the Dewey Decimal system is used to classify items. Organizational and processing techniques should not be overly complicated, but quality of cataloging should be maintained throughout the library collection.
Maintaining Records of Materials and Equipment (monthly and yearly)
Monthly circulation statistics need to be maintained. Run the
monthly circulation record at the end of each month, keeping one for the school
library files and sending one to the assistant superintendent for curriculum and instruction at the GISD Central Office.
The library staff should maintained inventory of books, audiovisual materials and equipment and report it to administration as required. If a full inventory of all library items cannot be completed each year, every other year will suffice.
The library staff should make a count of the number of items. For example, the total number of books in the collection should be known, as well as the number missing, discarded, and lost and paid for during the school year.
Each item of equipment should be barcoded and entered into the
computer database. Item records should be recorded by make, model and serial
number. If a district number is assigned, this should also be recorded on the
local record. All equipment items should be marked with GISD, school name, serial
number and bar code number with a permanent marker or preferably with an engraver
and permanent marker.
After media has been received into the library, it is ready for processing. All the steps necessary in order to prepare an item for check out are included in the following procedural practices for GISD. Cataloging practices shall be consistent and uniform in all libraries in GISD. All bibliographic records for on-line catalogs must be certified as US MARC by the Library of Congress. Subject headings shall be assigned from Library of Congress Subject Headings with LC Subject headings for Children's Literature.
Processing Materials/Out of the Box and Onto the Shelf
After media has been received into the library, it is ready for processing. Processing includes all the steps necessary to prepare media for use. The process used should follow standard library practices, be an easily followed routine, and be performed in a routine manner. Cataloging practices shall be consistent and uniform in all Georgetown ISD libraries.
Processing for Libraries
As books are unpacked, check to be sure your order reconciles with the items listed on the packing slip. This should be done before your order is sent in for payment to the business office. Check for manufacturing defects (bad binding, text upside down, etc.) Any defective books are put aside to be returned later.
Check off each book on the invoice packed with the books on your original titles list to make sure order is complete as stated on the invoice. Note any missing titles. Be sure to note if invoice states that items are back-ordered or out-of-print. Attach the invoice/packing list to your gold purchase order copy and return it to central office to be paid.
Attach barcode labels on the front cover in the upper left-hand corner, vertically, reading top down, or use your site base standard.
Ownership stamp- Stamp books with school library name in the following locations: Front inside cover, back inside cover or use your site base standard.
Spine Label- Print and affix to spine cover with label protector.
MARC diskette- Upload new catalog records into library cataloging database.
If no MARC records came with the books, and other sources
have been tried, use basic cataloging practices in the Follett Cataloging
F. STANDARDS FOR BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORDS
Special call numbers will be limited to the following and printed
in all capital letters:
FICTION: FIC plus the first three letters of the author's last name
EASY: E plus the first three letters of the author's last name.
STORY COLLECTION: SC plus the first three letters of the author's last name
BIOGRAPHY: Abridged Dewey number plus biographies last name (this is now LC standard)
REFERENCE: REF followed by Dewey number followed by the first three letters of the author's last name.
NON-PRINT: AV followed by Dewey number plus first three letters of author (or title if no author)
PROFESSIONAL: PRO followed by Dewey number plus the first three letters of the author's last name.
SPANISH: SP above the standard call number or FIC or E, plus first three letters of author's last name.
EQUIPMENT: EQ followed by year purchased.
Go to Library Procedures Manual, Section V, Technology Policies
Return to Library Handbook Table of Contents